"Our very future depended on being the ones who first seized ownership of space." “Control of space means control of the world.”
“From space, the masters of infinity would have the power to control the earth’s weather, to cause drought and flood, to change the tides and raise the levels of the sea, to divert the gulf stream and change temperate climates to frigid.”
At this point, you would be excused if you thought the above clip was the ranting from a possessed madman in an old black-and-white sci-fi horror film? No, the speech actually came from, the then-Senate Majority Leader and leader of the Democratic political opposition to Republican President Dwight Eisenhower . . . Lyndon Johnson, who went on to become President of the "free world!"
In essence, the Soviet Union has appraised control of space as a goal of such consequence that achievement of such control has been made a first aim of national policy. [In contrast], our decisions, more often than not, have been made within the framework of the Government’s annual budget. Against this view, we now have on record the appraisal of leaders in the field of science, respected men of unquestioned competence, whose valuation of what control of outer space means renders irrelevant the bookkeeping concerns of fiscal officers.
In other words 'space' must belong to the US, whatever the cost.
The above speech by Lindon Johnson, on January 8, 1958, to the New York Times, probably ignited the now infamous space race between the US and the Soviet Union. Johnson, the then-Senate Majority Leader and leader of the Democratic political opposition to Republican President, Dwight Eisenhower, created such a controversy over the USSR’s launch of Sputnik 1 that Eisenhower was forced into a public 'space race' he didn’t want. President Eisenhower had expressed no alarm over the Sputnik 1 incident when asked about a space race and further commented that “this country [the U.S.] has never been in a race". Even the Russian leader, Nikita Khrushchev, had made light of Sputnik’s significance and didn't want an escalation with the US.
But the space race exploded. This led a weary and concerned Eisenhower to warn the world of a very dangerous growing military-industrial complex in his now-famous farewell address from office in 1961. The President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower, a five-star general during World War II, tried to warn the world of future dystopian horrors when he first coined the phrase, "military-industrial complex," warning the world of the grave implications and threat from a powerful, out-of-control, cash consuming deep-state. Here is part of his famous speech:
“A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment. Our arms must be mighty, ready for instant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction... This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence—economic, political, even spiritual—is felt in every city, every statehouse, and every office of the Federal Government. We recognise the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources, and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our society. In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defence with our peaceful methods and goals so that security and liberty may prosper together."
We may have not known but—1957 and just after, along with the start of the space race also marked the beginning of the end of our society and environment as we had known it back then. Not only had the planet suddenly begun warming, but major quakes had begun increasing along with volcanic activity, natural disasters were rising and animals, insects, and oceans started to die off—As the space race and The Cold War accelerated, wars and rumours of wars were on everyone's lips.
During the late 50s', and early 60s' our world began to unwind sociologically and geopolitically simultaneously. Leaders and politicians had mostly been stoic and statesmanlike up to and during the 50s. But, in the early 60s began showing a collective "incompetence". More and more they began showing an inability to comprehend what was required of them, as a friend of mine once said this could be detected by what they said and didn't say. By how they answered a question or didn't answer. They also became greedier and more corrupt.
Society too was changing, although on the surface people in the early 60s looked to have everything they had ever needed to be peaceful and happy, but this Utopia slowly but surely began to crumble. Church attendance began to drop here in the West. God was taken from schools. Abortion slowly became acceptable (according to WHO, 200,000 babies are aborted in the world every day today). Socio-political movements and ideologies, such as feminism, homosexuality, civil rights, anti-war protests, and other countercultural movements, became fashionable and all these trends arrived almost simultaneously.
There was also a sudden rise in political and religious assassinations. The so-called fabric of society, God's wonderful gift of man and women joining together in marriage, began to diminish, and divorce became endemic. Depression and Drug abuse grew into a problem of epic proportions. Many people, especially the elderly began to feel lonely. In short, socially the West started collapsing along with its environment, like a cancer growth slowly growing. A new threat was emerging through the fog of politics the space race and the threat of thousands of rockets damaging our atmosphere on top of hundreds of nuclear weapon tests.
A prominent scientist at the time, Harry Wexler, was on JFK's team of space race scientists who, as early as 1962 warned the US government that the increased pollution from "rocket exhausts" was doing “terrible” things to our atmosphere. As you can imagine, the military was having none of it.
Harry Wexler warned the government that chlorine and bromine, the stuff coming out of rocket exhausts were destroying the ozone layer and would eventually disrupt the “jet stream” which in turn would cause worldwide weather chaos.
Today our jet stream is acting extremely erratic and is causing worldwide weather chaos!
The jet stream is thought to be one of the biggest causes of extreme weather (global warming) recently. And this 'weather driver' is causing much of the chaotic weather behaviour we are witnessing today. The erratic jet stream is causing horrendous storms, flooding, wildfires, heatwaves, droughts and bone-crunching cold and will only get worse in the coming years. We can't repair the jet stream which is today a mass killer, bringing death and damage to the Northern Hemisphere and costing governments billions of dollars.
Wexler unfortunately died ‘suddenly’ in 1962 of a heart attack before he could release his findings to the public. . . And of course, the mighty military-industrial complex has been shooting up the atmosphere ever since. However, the real blame for climate change has been bequeathed to us, the ordinary Joe.
It wasn't just rockets which worried Wexler. According to Wikipedia, in 1958, Harry Wexler voiced his concern regarding atom bomb testing claiming the testing would lead to a new ice age by causing a nuclear winter scenario. From 1959 until 1961 he proposed and promoted the idea of a World Weather Watch. In 1961 he served as the lead negotiator for the U.S. in talks with the U.S.S.R., concerning the joint use of meteorological satellites. He continued working at the bureau until his death in 1962.
Wexler had already accepted an invitation to deliver a lecture entitled "The Climate of Earth and Its Modifications" at the University of Maryland Space Research and Technology Institute. Another twelve years would pass before the first papers about the effect of chlorofluorocarbons on the ozone layer were published in 1974, during which chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) production had increased dramatically.
Wexler's warning. . .
Harry Wexler warned in 1962 that rockets were burning holes in the ionosphere, destroying the ozone layer, and modifying weather on a global scale (causing global warming). The year following his death, W. W. Kellogg from the RAND Corporation suggested expanding the use of sounding rockets (more research, using rockets) to do just that: modify global weather?
Wexler’s prescient work between 1958 and 1962 “—On the Possibilities of Climate Control,” reminds us that we are not the first generation to be involved with, or concerned about geoengineering.
Wexler assured his audiences that he was concerned not with the long and checkered history of 'cloud modification' leading to more-or-less localised precipitation influences. No, rather with 'planetary-scale manipulation' of the Earth’s short-wave and long-wave radiation budget that would result in “rather large-scale effects on the general circulation patterns in short or longer periods, even approaching that of climatic change.
These (insane) effects included increasing world temperature by several degrees by detonating up to ‘ten H-bombs’ in the Arctic Ocean. Decreasing world temperature by launching ‘powder’ into an equatorial orbit to shade the Earth and make it look somewhat like Saturn and its rings. Notably, destroying all stratospheric ozone above the Arctic Circle using a relatively small amount of a catalytic agent such as chlorine or bromine. Wexler was interested in both inadvertent climate modification, such as what might be created by rocket exhaust gases or other pollution, and purposeful effects, whether peaceful or hostile.
So, remember it was Wexler, about 60 years ago, who first claimed climate control was “respectable.”
Geoengineering and Ozone Destruction.
Increasing rising temperatures can be seen across the world these days. Even in the Middle East, temperatures of 50C (122+ F) were once the limit, but now parts of Pakistan, India, Australia, Europe the US, and Canada are now regularly passing that mark. (what kind of temperatures will we be enduring in ten years' time, 60 deg C?) But the intensity of the heat in the northwest Americas in 2021 and 2023, Siberia in 2020 and parts of Europe in 2019 and 2023 has taken many scientists by surprise and suggested "extra factors" may be involved in northern latitudes. As I write this chapter, 2023 has had the warmest day ever, the warmest week ever, the warmest summer ever, the warmest Autumn ever and 2023 will without doubt, be the warmest year ever, globally. And if I may be so bold, the temperature won't be cooling down next year or the year after!
One theory is that the recent temperature spike might have been caused not just by global heating, but by “slowing weather systems” that get stuck in one place for an extended period, which gives them time to intensify and cause more damage. (namely the jet stream) This was an important factor in the devastation in Texas caused by Hurricane Harvey in 2018, which sat above Houston for several days or—hurricane Dorian which parked itself over the Bahamas for two days in 2019. Storm systems, hurricanes and cyclones can't just park up for a day or two, but somehow, recently, they are doing just that! Blocked high-pressure fronts were also blamed for the blistering heatwave in Europe in 2019 and 2023.
Wexlar's warning happening now—An example in October 2023.
In October this year, Storm Babet incredibly, stayed above the UK and Ireland for four days dumping the highest amount of rainfall the UK had ever recorded and causing devastation from wind and flooding. As you can see on the Earth Wind Map below, the jet stream, red and purple, heading eastwards surrounded the UK and boxed in Storm Babet. (dark blue area) Babet which should have blown over the UK heading eastwards into Scandinavia in a few hours didn't. It became trapped and couldn't move because of the erratic jet stream boxing in the storm. Babet had nowhere to go! This kind of erratic behaviour is increasingly causing incredible damage.
So, you have seen the graphs, read the transcripts—Our Sun defiantly went ballistic in 1957 and broke all previous sunspot records—In the same year, a record-busting total of major quakes, mag 6 or higher were recorded here on Earth. Humans reached the heavens after almost 6,000 years of dreaming—But in the same year, global temperatures suddenly began to rise and solar activity began to decline, all in perfect synchronisation. But that's not all, is it? Droughts, floods, extreme weather, heatwaves, cold waves, wildfires, landslides, and volcanic activity suddenly began increasing along with the major quakes. Sadly too, the beginning of a disastrous decline of species, including, animals, marine life, pollinators, and insects along with millions more expected to become extinct in the next decade according to WWF. And of course a massive decline in the health of our oceans and rivers. And of course a massive decline in the health, physically and mentally of our society too.
The space race—Rockets!
NASA and NOAA along with the mighty, military-industrial Complex of the US, China, Russia, India, and all other civil or global space agencies are actually doing more to harm the planet than we ever could imagine, and have been since the space race began in 1957! For instance, experts say Elon Musk’s Space X Falcon Heavy Rocket is much cleaner for the atmosphere than its NASA predecessors. However, Space X is currently under scrutiny after the Federal Aviation Administration, (FAA) has been filed a lawsuit from environmental groups claiming Musk's rocket is a disaster to the environment and protected animal species. We have been hoodwinked again!
According to the LA Times, when a Space X rocket blasts off on a plume of white smoke, hot gases shoot out of its 27 engines, creating a thrust equal to “18 Boeing 747 aircraft.”Upon reaching orbit, the world’s heaviest operational rocket will have burned about 400 metric tons of kerosene and emitted more carbon dioxide in a few minutes than an average car would in more than two centuries. That kind of shock to our atmosphere is stoking concerns about the true effect that launching rockets into orbit has on Earth. (Better late than never I suppose) Musk is also launching thousands of satellites per year for his Starlink Internet Constellation.
NASA's Wonderful Space Shuttle!
Every time the old space shuttle was launched back in the glory days of space flight, the solid rocket boosters released 240 tons of HCl gas, 26 tons of chlorine gas, 7 tons of nitrogen dioxide gas, and 304 tons of aluminium oxide into the atmosphere. The resulting hydrochloric acid “dissolves eight inches of concrete on the launch pad," raising the concentration of hydrochloric acid in nearby lakes to 3M, causing massive fish kills in freshwater rivers, lakes and the ocean. It was also renowned for destroying paint on cars. Hmmm. . .
(Dissolved concrete, and destroyed paint on cars reminds me of something else, which happened in New York on September 11 2001, but that's another story!)
Leading chemists believe that HCl, (hydrochloric gas) is a major contributor to the holes in the ozone layer. The Space Shuttle alone made a total of 135 space flights during its 30-year career, releasing more than 41,000 tons of aluminium oxide, 3,510 tons of chlorine gas, almost 1,000 tons of nitrogen dioxide gas and 32,400 tons of HCI gas, all released into our atmosphere. But that was just the Space Shuttle—Throw into the mix the Gemini, Apollo and Saturn missions etc, the Russian Soyuz space exploration, India and China's space missions, and now Japan's contribution—Add to that the thousands of satellites which have been launched into space. Thousands more sounding rockets, (NASA's airborne rocket researchers), thousands more military experiments, and more than 2,000 nuclear weapons tests, and only then can we begin to imagine the damage mankind has done to our atmosphere, the ionosphere and the ozone layer. It's strange to imagine, especially with all the claims of how bad CO2 is for our atmosphere, that the impact rockets have had on our climate has never really been properly addressed, or has it?
Interestingly enough, 1957 recorded the then-record number of major quakes, mag 6 or higher and a record-busting number of Sunspots. A year later in 1958 a record number of “confirmed volcano eruptions” were recorded.
According to the Smithsonian Foundation Archives—1958 recorded 44 “confirmed eruptions” in one year. Since 1958 that amount has only been surpassed on four occasions, 1964 when 45 confirmed eruptions were reported, 2004, the highest number ever with 49 confirmed eruptions and 2005 and 2008 also with 45. NASA has always championed the theory, that solar activity influences volcanic and seismic activity here on Earth.
It is clear to see, when observing the correct data our world started steadily warming after 1957, major quakes went off the charts, volcanic activity hit record levels, natural disasters began increasing and all animal life began decreasing—The evidence is everywhere to see but ‘somehow never’ mentioned by the experts, I wonder why?
It is generally thought global warming was first mentioned in the 19th century but the idea didn’t really catch on until the late 1980s, However, we can clearly see on the plethora of official graphs and data during the late ‘50s and the early ‘60s the evidence of warming should have been jumped on much earlier. Harry Wexler knew, and he worked for the American Government. And, all the data coincided directly with three unprecedented events which couldn't be missed, even by a blind man—An explosion of sunspots and solar activity on our sun, a record number of major quake activity here on Earth and mankind's beginning of space exploration.
It was not until the 1980s when global warming began to be taken seriously that scientists began blaming the warming effect on carbon dioxide. Even though for thirty+ years Earth had been subjected to more than 2,000 nuclear bomb tests and twenty years of rockets punching holes in our atmosphere and ionosphere!
In the early "60s," JFK and Lyndon Johnson realised the US had to find a way to control the sun's power because they knew our Sun was affecting the weather here on planet Earth. As we read at the beginning of this chapter, Lyndon Johnson apparently had more sinister ideas and wanted to use the weather as a weapon. In his subcommittee’s detailed summary statement, Johnson proclaimed that;
"Our very future [US] depended on being the ones who first seized ownership of space." “Control of space means control of the world,” Johnson declared. “From space, the masters of infinity would have the power to control the earth’s weather, to cause droughtand flood, to change the tides and raise the levels of the sea, to divert the gulf stream and change temperate climates to frigid.” (which is exactly what is happening now, 60 years later!)
“It lays the predicate and foundation for the development of a weather satellite that will permit man to determine the world's cloud layer and ultimately to control the weather, and he who controls the weather will control the world"
Vice President Johnson at Southwest Texas State University. May 27 (1962).
As we now know, the prominent scientist at the time, Harry Wexler, who was on JFK's team had already warned the US government that the increased pollution from "rocket exhausts" was doing “terrible” things to our atmosphere. However, the military’s intervention made sure the experiments continued. Just a reminder as to what Harry Wexler had warned the government—That chlorine and bromine were destroying the ozone which would eventually disrupt the “jet stream” which in turn would cause worldwide weather chaos. Today our jet stream is extremely disrupted and erratic—One of the biggest causes of extreme weather recently is the chaotic behaviour of an extremely erratic jet stream which causes horrendous storms, flooding, heatwaves, and bone-crunching cold, along countries in the Northern Hemisphere.
According to Wikipedia, in 1958, Harry Wexler was also concerned that atom bomb testing would lead to a new ice age by causing a nuclear winter scenario. From 1959 until 1961 he proposed and promoted the idea of a World Weather Watch. In 1961 he served as the lead negotiator for the U.S. in talks with the U.S.S.R. concerning the joint use of meteorological satellites. He continued working at the bureau until his death in 1962.
Another twelve years would pass before the first papers about the effect of chlorofluorocarbons on the ozone layer were published in 1974, during which Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) production had increased dramatically. "Had Wexler lived to publish his ideas", author James Rodger Fleming would observe later, "they would certainly have been noticed and could have led to a different outcome and perhaps an earlier coordinated response to the issue of stratospheric ozone depletion." Wexler was just 51 when he died.
What effect did more than 2,000 nuclear tests have on our atmosphere?
It is crazy to think, insane even but—Between 1945 and 1998 more than 2,000 nuclear weapons were tested around the world. Many of the tests were conducted high in our atmosphere, some underground and some underwater.
According to the Smithsonian Magazine, the atmospheric tests, conducted in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s—created radioactive debris that became attached to particles in the air, called aerosols. The question is, what is the half-life, (which can be thousands of years) of Uranium and Plutonium attached to those aerosols and what damage are they doing to the atmosphere and us? It is interesting to note, that a study by Harvard University has found a substantial rise in cancer cases since the 50s'. But hey, you guessed that already didn't you?
This interactive chart once again from Our World In Data, shows the number of nuclear weapons tests conducted since 1945. We can see that the Cold War was a very active period of nuclear weapons development.